in press

Fiechter, J. L., & Kornell, N. (in press). Answering a factual question today increases one’s confidence in the same answer tomorrow—independent of fluency. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review.

Fiechter, J. L., & Kornell, N. (in press). How the wisdom of crowds, and of the crowd within, are affected by expertise. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications. 


Kornell, N. (2020). Why and how you should read student evaluations of teaching. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 9, 165–169.


Smalarz, L., Kornell, N., Vaughn, K. E., & Palmer, M. A. (2019). Identification performance from multiple lineups: Should eyewitnesses who pick fillers be burned? Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 8(2), 221-232.

Vaughn, K. E., & Kornell, N. (2019). How to activate students’ natural desire to test themselves. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 4, 35.


Fiechter, J. L., Fealing, C., Gerrard, R., & Kornell, N. (2018). Audiovisual quality impacts assessments of job candidates in video interviews: Evidence for an AV quality bias. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 3(1), 47.

Kornell, N., & Vaughn, K. E. (2018). In inductive category learning, people simultaneously block and space their studying using a strategy of being thorough and fair. Archives of Scientific Psychology, 6(1), 138–147.

Vaughn, K. E., Cone, J., & Kornell, N. (2018). A User’s Guide to Collecting Data Online. In H. Otani & B. L. Schwartz (Eds), Research Methods in Human Memory Research (pp. 354-373). New York: Routledge.


Ferrigno, S., Kornell, N., & Cantlon, J. F. (2017). A metacognitive illusion in monkeys. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 284(1862), 20171541.

Kornell, N., & Hausman, H. (2017). Performance bias: Why judgments of learning are not affected by learning. Memory & Cognition, 45(8), 1270–1280.

Vaughn, K. E., Hausman, H., & Kornell, N. (2017). Retrieval attempts enhance learning regardless of time spent trying to retrieveMemory, 25, 298-316. doi:10.1080/09658211.2016.1170152


Kornell, N., & Finn, B. (2016). Self-regulated learning: An overview of theory and data. In J. Dunlosky & S. Tauber (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Metamemory. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199336746.013.23

Kornell, N., & Vaughn, K. E. (2016). How retrieval attempts affect learning: A review and synthesisThe Psychology of Learning and Motivation (pp. 183–215).

Kornell, N., & Hausman, H. (2016). Do the best teachers get the best ratings? Frontiers in Psychology. 7(570). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00570

Sitzman, D. M., Rhodes, M. G., & Kornell, N. (2016). The influence of feedback on predictions of future memory performance. Memory & Cognition, 44, 1102–1113. doi:10.3758/s13421-016-0623-x


Kornell, N. (2015). If it is stored in my memory I will surely retrieve it: anatomy of a metacognitive beliefMetacognition and Learning, 10, 279-292. doi:10.1007/s11409-014-9125-z

Kornell, N., Klein, P. J., & Rawson, K. A. (2015). Retrieval attempts enhance learning, but retrieval success (versus failure) does not matterJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41, 283-294. doi:10.1037/a0037850

Yue, C. L., Storm, B. C., Kornell, N., & Bjork, E. L. (2015). Highlighting and its relation to distributed study and students’ metacognitive beliefsEducational Psychology Review, 27, 69-78. doi:10.1007/s10648-014-9277-z


Hausman, H., & Kornell, N. (2014).  Mixing topics while studying does not enhance learningJournal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 3, 153-160. doi:10.1016/j.jarmac.2014.03.003 

Kornell, N. (2014a). Attempting to answer a meaningful question enhances subsequent learning even when feedback is delayedJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40, 106-114. doi:10.1037/a0033699

Kornell, N. (2014b). Where is the “meta” in animal metacognition? Journal of Comparative Psychology, 128, 143-149. doi:10.1037/a0033444

Kornell, N. (2014c). Where to draw the line on metacognition: A taxonomy of metacognitive cues. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 128, 160-162. doi:10.1037/a0036194.

Kornell, N., & Flanagan, K. (2014). Is focusing on unknown items while studying a beneficial long-term strategy? Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 26, 928-942. doi:10.1080/20445911.2014.967771

Kornell, N., & Metcalfe, J. (2014). The effects of memory retrieval, errors and feedback on learning. In V. A. Benassi, C. E. Overson, & C. M. Hakala (Eds.). Applying science of learning in education: Infusing psychological science into the curriculum (pp. 225-251). Retrieved from the Society for the Teaching of Psychology web site:

Morgan, G., Kornell, N., Kornblum, T., & Terrace, H. S. (2014). Retrospective and prospective metacognitive judgments in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)Animal Cognition, 17, 249-257. doi:10.1007/s10071-013-0657-4

Nestojko, J. F., Bui, D. C., Kornell, N., & Bjork, E. L. (2014). Expecting to teach enhances learning and organization of knowledge in free recall of text passagesMemory & Cognition, 42, 1038-1048. doi:10.3758/s13421-014-0416-z

Vo, V. A., Li, R., Kornell, N., Pouget, A., & Cantlon, J. F. (2014). Young children bet on their numerical skills: metacognition in the numerical domainPsychological Science, 25, 1712–1721. doi:10.1177/0956797614538458


Birnbaum, M. S., Kornell, N., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2013). Why interleaving enhances inductive learning: The roles of discrimination and retrievalMemory & Cognition, 41, 392-402. doi:10.3758/s13421-012-0272-7

Bjork, R. A., Dunlosky, J., & Kornell, N. (2013). Self‐regulated learning: beliefs, techniques, and illusionsAnnual Review of Psychology, 64, 417-444. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143823

Carpenter, S. K., Wilford, M. M., Kornell, N., & Mullaney, K. M. (2013). Appearances can be deceiving: Instructor fluency increases perceptions of learning without increasing actual learningPsychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 1350-1356. doi:10.3758/s13423-013-0442-z

Hays, M. J., Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2013). When and why a failed test potentiates the effectiveness of subsequent studyJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 290-296. doi:10.1037/a0028468

Kornell, N. (2013). Discrimination learning: Training methods. In H. Pashler (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Mind (pp. 250-252). Thousand Oaks: Sage Reference.

Kornell, N., & Rhodes, M. G. (2013). Feedback reduces the metacognitive benefit of testsJournal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 19, 1-13. doi:10.1037/a0032147

Todorov, I., Kornell, N., Sundqvist, M. L., & Jönsson, F. U. (2013). Phrasing questions in terms of current (not future) knowledge increases preferences for cue-only judgments of learningArchives of Scientific Psychology, 1, 7-13. doi:10.1037/arc0000002


Kornell, N. (2012). A stability bias in human memory. In N. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning (pp. 4-7). New York: Springer.

Kornell, N., Rabelo, V. C., & Klein, P. J. (2012). Tests enhance learning—Compared to what? Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 1, 257-259.

Son, L. K., Kornell, N., Finn, B., & Cantlon, J. F. (2012). Metacognition and the social animal. In P. Briñol, & K. G. DeMarree (Eds.). Social Metacognition (pp. 159-175). New York, NY: Psychology Press.


Finley, J. R., Benjamin, A. S., Hays, M. J., Bjork, R. A., & Kornell, N. (2011). Benefits of accumulating versus diminishing cues in recallJournal of Memory and Language 64,289-298.

Kornell, N. (2011). Failing to predict future changes in memory: A stability bias yields long-term overconfidence. In A. S. Benjamin (Ed.), Successful Remembering and Successful Forgetting: A Festschrift in Honor of Robert A. Bjork (pp. 365-386). New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Kornell, N., Bjork, R. A., & Garcia, M. A. (2011). Why tests appear to prevent forgetting: A distribution-based bifurcation model. Journal of Memory and Language, 65, 85-97.

Kornell, N., Rhodes, M. G., Castel, A. D., & Tauber, S. K. (2011). The ease of processing heuristic and the stability bias: Dissociating memory, memory beliefs, and memory judgments. Psychological Science, 22, 787-794. doi:10.1177/0956797611407929.

Schwartz, B. L., Son, L. K., Kornell, N., & Finn, B. (2011). Four principles of memory improvement: A guide to improving learning efficiency. International Journal of Creativity and Problem Solving, 21, 7-15.


Hays, M. J., Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2010). The costs and benefits of providing feedback during learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 797-801. doi:10.3758/PBR.17.6.797.

Kornell, N. (2010). Metacognition. In D. Mills (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Applied Animal Behaviour & Welfare (pp. 413-414). Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CABI publishing.

Kornell, N., Castel, A. D., Eich, T. S., & Bjork, R. A. (2010). Spacing as the friend of both memory and induction in young and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 25, 498-503.

Son, L. K., & Kornell, N. (2010). The virtues of ignorance. Behavioral Processes, 83, 207-212.


Kornell, N. (2009a). Metacognition in humans and animals. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 11-15.

Kornell, N. (2009b). Optimizing learning using flashcards: Spacing is more effective than cramming. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23, 1297-1317.

Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2009). A stability bias in human memory: Overestimating remembering and underestimating learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 138, 449-468. doi:10.1037/a0017350

Kornell, N., Hays, M. J., & Bjork, R. A. (2009). Unsuccessful retrieval attempts enhance subsequent learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 989-998.

Kornell, N., Schwartz, B. L., & Son, L. K. (2009). What monkeys can tell us about metacognition and mindreading (commentary). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 150-151.

Kornell, N., & Son, L. K. (2009). Learners’ choices and beliefs about self-testing. Memory, 17, 493-501.

Metcalfe, J., Kornell, N., & Finn, B. (2009). Delayed versus immediate feedback in children’s and adults’ vocabulary learning. Memory & Cognition, 37, 1077-1087.

Richland, L. E., Kornell, N., & Kao, L. S. (2009). The pretesting effect: Do unsuccessful retrieval attempts enhance learning? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 15, 243-257.

Son, L. K., & Kornell, N. (2009). Simultaneous decisions at study: time allocation, ordering, and spacing. Metacognition and Learning, 4, 237-248.


Kornell, N. & Bjork, R. A. (2008a). Learning concepts and categories: Is spacing the “enemy of induction”? Psychological Science, 19, 585-592.

Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2008b). Optimizing self-regulated study: The benefits—and costs—of dropping flashcards. Memory, 16, 125-136.

Richland, L. E., Kao, L. S., & Kornell, N. (2008). Can unsuccessful tests enhance learning? In B. C. Love, K. McRae, & V. M. Sloutsky (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2338-2343). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Son, L. K., & Kornell, N. (2008). Research on the allocation of study time: Key studies from 1890 to the present (and beyond). In J. Dunlosky & R. A. Bjork (Eds.), A handbook of memory and metamemory (pp. 333-351). Hillsdale, NJ: Psychology Press.

Vlach, H. A., Sandhofer, C. M., & Kornell, N. (2008). The spacing effect in children’s memory and category induction. Cognition, 109, 163-167.


Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2007). The promise and perils of self-regulated study. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 219-224.

Kornell, N., Son, L. K., & Terrace, H. S. (2007). Transfer of metacognitive skills and hint seeking in monkeys. Psychological Science, 18, 64-71.

Kornell, N., & Terrace, H. S. (2007). The generation effect in monkeys. Psychological Science, 18, 682-685.

Metcalfe, J., & Kornell, N. (2007). Principles of cognitive science in education: The effects of generation, errors and feedback. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 225-229.

Metcalfe, J., Kornell, N., & Son, L. K. (2007). A cognitive-science based program to enhance study efficacy in a high and low-risk setting. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 19, 743-768.


Kornell, N., & Metcalfe, J. (2006b). “Blockers” do not block recall during tip-of-the-tongue states. Metacognition and Learning, 1, 248-261.

Kornell, N., & Metcalfe, J. (2006a). Study efficacy and the region of proximal learning framework. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32, 609-622.


Metcalfe, J., & Kornell, N. (2005). A region of proximal learning model of study time allocation. Journal of Memory and Language, 52, 463-477.

Son, L. K., & Kornell, N. (2005). Metaconfidence judgments in rhesus macaques: Explicit versus implicit mechanisms. In Terrace, H. S. & Metcalfe, J. (Eds.), The missing link in cognition: Origins of self-reflective consciousness (pp. 296-320). New York: Oxford University Press.


Metcalfe, J. & Kornell, N. (2003). The dynamics of learning and allocation of study time to a region of proximal learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132, 530-542.

Son, L. K., Schwartz, B. L., & Kornell, N. (2003). Implicit metacognition, explicit uncertainty, and the monitoring/control distinction in animal Metacognition (commentary). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 26, 355-356.


Neuringer, A., Kornell, N., & Olufs, M. (2001). Stability and variability in extinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 27, 79-94.


Kornell., N., Watson, J. D., & Crick, F. H. C. (1953). Molecular structure of nucleic acids: A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acidNature, 171, 737-8.