In Press

Kornell, N., & Hausman, H. (in press). Do the best teachers get the best ratings? Frontiers in Psychology. 7(570). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00570

Kornell, N., & Vaughn, K. E. (in press). How retrieval attempts affect learning: a review and synthesis. Psychology of Learning and Motivation.

Vaughn, K. E., Hausman, H., & Kornell, N. (in press). Retrieval attempts enhance learning regardless of time spent trying to retrieveMemory. doi:10.1080/09658211.2016.1170152


Kornell, N., & Finn, B. (2016). Self-regulated learning: An overview of theory and data. In J. Dunlosky & S. Tauber (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Metamemory. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199336746.013.23


Kornell, N. (2015). If it is stored in my memory I will surely retrieve it: anatomy of a metacognitive beliefMetacognition and Learning, 10, 279-292. doi:10.1007/s11409-014-9125-z

Kornell, N., Klein, P. J., & Rawson, K. A. (2015). Retrieval attempts enhance learning, but retrieval success (versus failure) does not matterJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41, 283-294. doi:10.1037/a0037850

Yue, C. L., Storm, B. C., Kornell, N., & Bjork, E. L. (2015). Highlighting and its relation to distributed study and students’ metacognitive beliefsEducational Psychology Review, 27, 69-78. doi:10.1007/s10648-014-9277-z


Hausman, H., & Kornell, N. (2014).  Mixing topics while studying does not enhance learningJournal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 3, 153-160. doi:10.1016/j.jarmac.2014.03.003 

Kornell, N. (2014a). Attempting to answer a meaningful question enhances subsequent learning even when feedback is delayedJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40, 106-114. doi:10.1037/a0033699

Kornell, N. (2014b). Where is the “meta” in animal metacognition? Journal of Comparative Psychology, 128, 143-149. doi:10.1037/a0033444

Kornell, N. (2014c). Where to draw the line on metacognition: A taxonomy of metacognitive cues. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 128, 160-162. doi:10.1037/a0036194.

Kornell, N., & Flanagan, K. (2014). Is focusing on unknown items while studying a beneficial long-term strategy? Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 26, 928-942. doi:10.1080/20445911.2014.967771

Kornell, N., & Metcalfe, J. (2014). The effects of memory retrieval, errors and feedback on learning. In V. A. Benassi, C. E. Overson, & C. M. Hakala (Eds.). Applying science of learning in education: Infusing psychological science into the curriculum (pp. 225-251). Retrieved from the Society for the Teaching of Psychology web site:

Morgan, G., Kornell, N., Kornblum, T., & Terrace, H. S. (2014). Retrospective and prospective metacognitive judgments in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)Animal Cognition, 17, 249-257. doi:10.1007/s10071-013-0657-4

Nestojko, J. F., Bui, D. C., Kornell, N., & Bjork, E. L. (2014). Expecting to teach enhances learning and organization of knowledge in free recall of text passagesMemory & Cognition, 42, 1038-1048. doi:10.3758/s13421-014-0416-z

Vo, V. A., Li, R., Kornell, N., Pouget, A., & Cantlon, J. F. (2014). Young children bet on their numerical skills: metacognition in the numerical domainPsychological Science, 25, 1712–1721. doi:10.1177/0956797614538458


Birnbaum, M. S., Kornell, N., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2013). Why interleaving enhances inductive learning: The roles of discrimination and retrievalMemory & Cognition, 41, 392-402. doi:10.3758/s13421-012-0272-7

Bjork, R. A., Dunlosky, J., & Kornell, N. (2013). Self‐regulated learning: beliefs, techniques, and illusionsAnnual Review of Psychology, 64, 417-444. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143823

Carpenter, S. K., Wilford, M. M., Kornell, N., & Mullaney, K. M. (2013). Appearances can be deceiving: Instructor fluency increases perceptions of learning without increasing actual learningPsychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 1350-1356. doi:10.3758/s13423-013-0442-z

Hays, M. J., Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2013). When and why a failed test potentiates the effectiveness of subsequent studyJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 290-296. doi:10.1037/a0028468

Kornell, N. (2013). Discrimination learning: Training methods. In H. Pashler (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Mind (pp. 250-252). Thousand Oaks: Sage Reference.

Kornell, N., & Rhodes, M. G. (2013). Feedback reduces the metacognitive benefit of testsJournal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 19, 1-13. doi:10.1037/a0032147

Todorov, I., Kornell, N., Sundqvist, M. L., & Jönsson, F. U. (2013). Phrasing questions in terms of current (not future) knowledge increases preferences for cue-only judgments of learningArchives of Scientific Psychology, 1, 7-13. doi:10.1037/arc0000002


Kornell, N. (2012). A stability bias in human memory. In N. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning (pp. 4-7). New York: Springer.

Kornell, N., Rabelo, V. C., & Klein, P. J. (2012). Tests enhance learning—Compared to what? Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 1, 257-259.

Son, L. K., Kornell, N., Finn, B., & Cantlon, J. F. (2012). Metacognition and the social animal. In P. Briñol, & K. G. DeMarree (Eds.). Social Metacognition (pp. 159-175). New York, NY: Psychology Press.


Finley, J. R., Benjamin, A. S., Hays, M. J., Bjork, R. A., & Kornell, N. (2011). Benefits of accumulating versus diminishing cues in recallJournal of Memory and Language 64,289-298.

Kornell, N. (2011). Failing to predict future changes in memory: A stability bias yields long-term overconfidence. In A. S. Benjamin (Ed.), Successful Remembering and Successful Forgetting: A Festschrift in Honor of Robert A. Bjork (pp. 365-386). New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Kornell, N., Bjork, R. A., & Garcia, M. A. (2011). Why tests appear to prevent forgetting: A distribution-based bifurcation model. Journal of Memory and Language, 65, 85-97.

Kornell, N., Rhodes, M. G., Castel, A. D., & Tauber, S. K. (2011). The ease of processing heuristic and the stability bias: Dissociating memory, memory beliefs, and memory judgments. Psychological Science, 22, 787-794. doi:10.1177/0956797611407929.

Schwartz, B. L., Son, L. K., Kornell, N., & Finn, B. (2011). Four principles of memory improvement: A guide to improving learning efficiency. International Journal of Creativity and Problem Solving, 21, 7-15.


Hays, M. J., Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2010). The costs and benefits of providing feedback during learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 797-801. doi:10.3758/PBR.17.6.797.

Kornell, N. (2010). Metacognition. In D. Mills (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Applied Animal Behaviour & Welfare (pp. 413-414). Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CABI publishing.

Kornell, N., Castel, A. D., Eich, T. S., & Bjork, R. A. (2010). Spacing as the friend of both memory and induction in young and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 25, 498-503.

Son, L. K., & Kornell, N. (2010). The virtues of ignorance. Behavioral Processes, 83, 207-212.


Kornell, N. (2009a). Metacognition in humans and animals. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 11-15.

Kornell, N. (2009b). Optimizing learning using flashcards: Spacing is more effective than cramming. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23, 1297-1317.

Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2009). A stability bias in human memory: Overestimating remembering and underestimating learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 138, 449-468. doi:10.1037/a0017350

Kornell, N., Hays, M. J., & Bjork, R. A. (2009). Unsuccessful retrieval attempts enhance subsequent learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 989-998.

Kornell, N., Schwartz, B. L., & Son, L. K. (2009). What monkeys can tell us about metacognition and mindreading (commentary). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 150-151.

Kornell, N., & Son, L. K. (2009). Learners’ choices and beliefs about self-testing. Memory, 17, 493-501.

Metcalfe, J., Kornell, N., & Finn, B. (2009). Delayed versus immediate feedback in children’s and adults’ vocabulary learning. Memory & Cognition, 37, 1077-1087.

Richland, L. E., Kornell, N., & Kao, L. S. (2009). The pretesting effect: Do unsuccessful retrieval attempts enhance learning? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 15, 243-257.

Son, L. K., & Kornell, N. (2009). Simultaneous decisions at study: time allocation, ordering, and spacing. Metacognition and Learning, 4, 237-248.


Kornell, N. & Bjork, R. A. (2008a). Learning concepts and categories: Is spacing the “enemy of induction”? Psychological Science, 19, 585-592.

Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2008b). Optimizing self-regulated study: The benefits—and costs—of dropping flashcards. Memory, 16, 125-136.

Richland, L. E., Kao, L. S., & Kornell, N. (2008). Can unsuccessful tests enhance learning? In B. C. Love, K. McRae, & V. M. Sloutsky (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2338-2343). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Son, L. K., & Kornell, N. (2008). Research on the allocation of study time: Key studies from 1890 to the present (and beyond). In J. Dunlosky & R. A. Bjork (Eds.), A handbook of memory and metamemory (pp. 333-351). Hillsdale, NJ: Psychology Press.

Vlach, H. A., Sandhofer, C. M., & Kornell, N. (2008). The spacing effect in children’s memory and category induction. Cognition, 109, 163-167.


Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2007). The promise and perils of self-regulated study. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 219-224.

Kornell, N., Son, L. K., & Terrace, H. S. (2007). Transfer of metacognitive skills and hint seeking in monkeys. Psychological Science, 18, 64-71.

Kornell, N., & Terrace, H. S. (2007). The generation effect in monkeys. Psychological Science, 18, 682-685.

Metcalfe, J., & Kornell, N. (2007). Principles of cognitive science in education: The effects of generation, errors and feedback. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 225-229.

Metcalfe, J., Kornell, N., & Son, L. K. (2007). A cognitive-science based program to enhance study efficacy in a high and low-risk setting. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 19, 743-768.


Kornell, N., & Metcalfe, J. (2006b). “Blockers” do not block recall during tip-of-the-tongue states. Metacognition and Learning, 1, 248-261.

Kornell, N., & Metcalfe, J. (2006a). Study efficacy and the region of proximal learning framework. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32, 609-622.


Metcalfe, J., & Kornell, N. (2005). A region of proximal learning model of study time allocation. Journal of Memory and Language, 52, 463-477.

Son, L. K., & Kornell, N. (2005). Metaconfidence judgments in rhesus macaques: Explicit versus implicit mechanisms. In Terrace, H. S. & Metcalfe, J. (Eds.), The missing link in cognition: Origins of self-reflective consciousness (pp. 296-320). New York: Oxford University Press.


Metcalfe, J. & Kornell, N. (2003). The dynamics of learning and allocation of study time to a region of proximal learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132, 530-542.

Son, L. K., Schwartz, B. L., & Kornell, N. (2003). Implicit metacognition, explicit uncertainty, and the monitoring/control distinction in animal Metacognition (commentary). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 26, 355-356.


Neuringer, A., Kornell, N., & Olufs, M. (2001). Stability and variability in extinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 27, 79-94.


Kornell., N., Watson, J. D., & Crick, F. H. C. (1953). Molecular structure of nucleic acids: A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acidNature, 171, 737-8. 

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